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Posts tagged ‘Babangida Aliyu’

Northern govs meet over oil exploration.


Thirteen northern governors, whose states falls under the regions’ sedimentary basin are set to meet today on how to kick start oil and gas exploration activities in the Inland Basin States.

Niger State governor, Dr. Babangida Aliyu, who is also the chairman of the Northern State Governors Forum, NSGF, will declare the meeting of the Association of Petroleum Inland Basin States of Northern Nigeria, APIBONN, open, according to a press statement signed by his Chief Press Secretary, Danladi Ndayebo.

The statement said Governor Aliyu in his capacity as the chairman of the forum has invited his counterparts whose states fall within the region’s sedimentary basin to direct their relevant commissioners to attend a meeting of the association in Minna, the Niger State capital.


The meeting, according to the statement, would enable them brainstorm on the modalities and action plan that would kick start and sustain oil and gas exploration activities in the north.

The forum said; “The meeting will fashion out strategies to harness the resources in Sokoto Basin, Chad Basin, Bida basin and Benue Trough, whose hydrocarbon contents are yet to be properly developed and estimated.”

The forum expressed support for the ongoing efforts by the Federal Government to explore oil in the sedimentary basin of northern Nigeria.

The Inland Basin States comprise of Adamawa, Bauchi, Benue, Gombe, Kogi, Kebbi, Niger and Sokoto States. Others are Zamfara, Kwara, Nasarawa, Taraba, Yobe and Plateau States.

Source: Radio Biafra.

Sack Me If You Can, PDP Chairman Bamanga Tukur Dares President Jonathan.


PDP Chair, Bamanga Tukur
By SaharaReporters, New York

The National Chairman of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), Alhaji Bamanga Tukur, has challenged President Goodluck Jonathan to remove him from office if he can.

Tukur’s outburst followed the refusal of members of the party’s National Working Committee to attend a meeting he called at the party’s secretariat in Abuja last Wednesday.

The Adamawa State born politician, who is growing isolated at the top levels of the party where he is being held responsible for its dwindling influence and the defection of members, was infuriated by the attitude of his fellow national officers.  He told reporters that he can only be removed from office through a properly conducted National Convention and that unless and until that takes place, nobody, including President Jonathan can remove him.

The National Chairman also dismissed the allegation that he has been asked to resign by the President, and accused the opposition of planting the story to create disharmony in the party.

“I am an elected National Chairman, I have my certificate of return, I cannot resign,” he bragged.  “The convention brought me, so it has to take the convention that brought me for me to resign. So, not even the President can ask me to resign. Remember, some members of the NWC were asked to go recently because the election that brought them was flawed, so Mr. President cannot tread that route again.”

2014: Politicians And The Rest Of Us By Abdullahi Yunusa.

Finally, 2014, the year we so prayed hard and wished to witness is here with us. To God be the glory. This is the year most Nigerians, especially politicians have long talked about and anxiously waited for it to come. According to them, 2014 is the ideal time to measure Nigeria’s political temperature, assess the state of the nation, reconcile feuding elements, roll out political plans, mend dilapidated political fences, reunite with foes, write more letters,  bluntly deny some of the letters as well as make their positions known to Nigerians.

An average Nigerian politician thinks of the next election the very day he is sworn into office. He thinks of how to retain his seat in future elections. Good governance or how to deliver on his campaign promises is usually relegated to the background. Already, signs of political events to witness in 2014 and 2015 are very obvious to see. Without doubts, political activities would reach its crescendo. We shall play host to actual contenders and pretenders to various elective offices. In all of these, it is the faith of an average Nigerian whose daily living, food, security, health and existence are largely dependent on the quality of governance that remains uncertain. And that is what this piece is out to address.

The kind of political intrigues we witnessed towards the end of 2013 is a pointer to what our politicians have in store for us in 2014. Expectedly, more daring and provocative letters with inflammable contents would be written. We shall equally record more denials and counter denials. Governance would become a secondary business, politics and politicking would take centre sage. Government offices would be deserted. Attention would shift to party secretariats.

We shall witness more nocturnal political meetings between feuding party members. We shall record more defections, to and from PDP. Political permutations, political alignments and realignments would reach feverish pitch. More spurious contracts would be awarded to government cronies while previous ones will be abandoned to be re-awarded in the future. This is how things are usually done in this part of the globe. What is of utmost importance to leaders across all levels of government is not how to end polio, it is not how to build more basic infrastructure, it is not how to put food on the perennially empty table of poor Nigerians, it is not how to provide jobs for varsity undergraduates roaming our streets across the country. It is simply about how to be re-elected in 2015 against seen and unseen odds. This is how bad things have gone in Nigeria, especially at the federal level where all that matters is the Dr Jonathan Must Return project. Already, plans on how to achieve that are daily being reeled out. Substantial funds needed to actualize the plan are readily available.

It is a done deal. Already, the strategists, gamers, liars, fixers, blackmailers and bootlickers needed to return Dr. Goodluck Jonathan to power have been identified and about to be settled! Let me not bore you with the names of these potential strategists, fixers and gamers. Even a toddler doesn’t require any guide to name such elements. They call themselves politicians, party chieftains, stalwarts or bigwigs even though they have never contested any election in their entire life, not even a Class Rep election way back on campus. They truly don’t know the pains, misery, sadness and disappointment associated with losing elections. This is why they conspire with their paymasters to rob actual winners of their victories.

Fellow Nigerians, I’m so sorry to disappoint you. Without doubts, I know your expectations from government are many. Ideally, citizens expect their leaders to roll out yearly plans to make life more comfortable for them. But in your interest, perish the thoughts of expecting anything with a semblance of dividends of democracy from this present crop of leaders. No, 2013 was the appropriate year to expect anything good from our leaders holding different elective or appointive positions. Whatever they hand out to you now is just to win you over to their camps. All legitimate government activities have been suspended. What matters to them is how to clear their rough and thorny paths to power. What they stand to gain come 2015 is their utmost concern. Forget those dilapidated classroom structures in Kwande, Benue state. Even the collapsed bridge that linked Wukari in Taraba and Benue state can wait till 2015. Once elections are conducted and manipulatively won, contracts for the projects will be awarded. The Suleja-Minna-Kotongora Federal Highway awarded by the late President Umaru Musa Yar’adua administration in 2009 is far from being completed. The snail speed at which the work is carried out is typical of President Jonathan’s unimpressive, lackluster and uninspiring leadership style.

Even those in the opposition are not helping matters. Instead of offering qualitative options or roll out probable solutions to our woes, all they engage in is petty and narrow-minded politics. We expect those in the opposition to tell Nigerians why they deserve to be voted into power come 2015. It is not enough to call those in the PDP thieves, election riggers, clueless or visionless politicians. It is about offering better and reasonable options. Responsible and responsive opposition politics is about offering the people hope where none exist. It is largely about holding the government in power accountable to the people. It is about ensuring that profligacy, nepotism, red-tape, corruption and other harmful practices detrimental to a nation’s life are avoided. Regrettably, all the opposition party does is to constantly take the President and his cabinet members to the cleaners or engage them in needless war of words. Where is the place of insult-free, rancor-free, people and issue-based opposition politics?

I am yet to see any convincing reason to differentiate the All Progressives Congress from the ruling Peoples Democratic Party. No! I mean capital NO. They are no clear-cut differences between both parties. Regular press statements from their Publicity Secretaries are laced with provocative, malicious, abusive and rancorous lines capable of igniting war. It is either the PDP is accusing the APC of perfecting plans to Islamise Nigeria by 2015 or the APC is screaming against PDP’s flying of ethnic kite. Both parties have continued to heat up the polity for mainly selfish and personal reasons. The occasional inter and intra-party squabbles we read about in the newspapers are not on how to provide basic infrastructure in our communities or make life a bit meaningful for an average Nigerian. It is about the next election. It is basically on how they want to remain relevant even when they have outlived their political usefulness. An average Nigerian politician sees politics as a career. He pegs his entire life and activities on politics. This largely account for why they often end up badly broke when out of office. Politics should be about service to humanity and not an avenue to amass wealth with reckless abandon. Until our politicians see politics from the prism of service, and not as a route to becoming wealthy, we would continue to grope in the dark.

We have some strong lessons to learn from the daily activities of our politicians. The raging issue threatening the fragile soul of the PDP is just how to ensure that President Jonathan is returned to Aso Rock either by hook or crook. The intra-party crisis is not peculiar to PDP alone, even the newly registered APC is battling hard to calm frayed nerves across its state chapters. In Kano for instance, former Governor Ibrahim Shekarau is not ready to recognize incumbent governor Rabiu Musa Kwankwaso who recently defected to the APC as the party’s leader in the state. Same thing is witnessed between incumbent Aliyu Magartakarda Wamakko of Sokoto state and his predecessor, Attahiru Bararawa. So, honestly speaking, the rising political feud among party members is mainly about themselves and how to hold major stakes within their parties. It is high time we realized this game plan and speak truth to power.

As it stands now, political gladiators and opportunists are dusting their uninspiring political credentials ahead of 2015. More retired army generals and former high-ranking civil servants are carefully watching from the sidelines with rapt attention before casting their political nets. Also, civil society groups, pressure groups, faith-based bodies and youth organizations are perfecting plans to outdo each other in the game of lobbying and praise-singing. They all want to have their own share of the election bounty. Also, media practitioners are not left out. Already, billions have been set aside to pay writers of jaundiced and puerile opinions in support of aspiring politicians. Things are gradually beginning to unfold. In due season we shall all become witnesses to what these leaders think of you and I.  In their warped thinking, you and I are morons, cowards and people with no mind of their own. Let us prove them wrong this time around by refusing to listen to their uninspiring tales.

Genuine media practitioners and other critical stakeholders in the Nigerian project have serious roles to play in ensuring that greedy and incompetent politicians are identified early and voted out during the 2015 elections. Those with less than average performance record should also be spotted and voted against. Nigeria is too great a country to be left In the hands of political marauders, opportunists and narrow-minded individuals.  God bless Nigeria.

Abdullahi Yunusa wrote in from Imane in Kogi state.


The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of SaharaReporters

2015: Hausa/Yoruba Greedy Families divides over Jonathan.

nigeria family

Like the sword of Damocles, perception about President Goodluck Jonathan is pushing some of the country’s major political families towards different political polesDr. Iyabo Obasanjo apparently does not care a hoot about what many Nigerians think of President Goodluck Jonathan; whether good or bad.
She was clear on that when she wrote a blistering severance letter to her father last December.DIVIDED“This letter is not in support of President Jonathan or APC or any other group or person, but an outpouring from my soul to God,” the former senator wrote in a letter that was partly triggered by her father’s own open letter to Dr. Jonathan.But how President Jonathan stirred the famous break up between father and daughter was given fillip with the denunciation by Iyabo of her father as a hypocrite who would not allow on himself what he was supposedly doing to President Jonathan.“For you to accuse someone else of what you so obviously practiced yourself tells of your narcissistic megalomaniac personality,” Senator Obasanjo wrote in a letter that stirred wild celebration among several political associates of President Jonathan.Given the acidic content of the letter earlier written by President Obasanjo to President Jonathan, many independent stakeholders were tempted to believe that Senator Obasanjo had become a pawn in the fight between the two presidents.But Senator Iyabo Obasanjo whose difficult experience as a senator, especially when she was unduly tried for an offence that was later proved not to be a misdemanour, was quick to disavow political undertones to the issues between her and her father.Iyabo and her father are not the only family members to be separated on the issue of Jonathan. Across the country Dr. Jonathan has also been the cause of rift among some other families in the public eye.
The Adamawa State Commissioner for Environment, Mrs. Arziki Sawa and her husband Senator Andrawus Sawa are no less equally divided by the Jonathan phenomenon.Senator Sawa, a former military officer reputed to be at one time a very close friend of Governor Murtala Nyako was allegedly instrumental to the nomination of his wife as commissioner in the cabinet of Nyako.
The governor and Senator Sawa served in the military at about the same time. Some claim that the appointment of his wife into the Adamawa cabinet followed the failure of the governor to give his one time friend a federal appointment.But the truth of how the two fell out remains a secret that only the two men will tell one day.
Even though Senator Sawa has firmly turned his back on Nyako and become a strong backer of Jonathan, his wife has continued to sojourn in the cabinet.
When on Monday, December 16, 2013 the Adamawa State chapter of the PDP held a massive rally to endorse President Jonathan’s leadership of the country, Senator Sawa was very visible.However, two days after that rally when the Adamawa State Executive Council met and unanimously resolved to defect to the All Progressives Congress, APC, the absence of Mrs. Arziki Sawa was as conspicuous as the presence of her husband was noticed in the PDP rally supportive of Dr. Jonathan.g5It was as such not difficult for some to speculate that Mrs. Sawa had joined her husband to support Jonathan against the declaration by her colleagues in the State Executive Council to join the APC.
A troubled Mrs. Sawa was quick to dissociate herself from the rally and to pledge support for Governor Nyako as she gave reasons for her absence.“I am 100 per cent behind Baba Maimangoro (Governor Nyako) and there is no way that I can abandon him, so I am 100 per cent behind him in APC and wherever he is going, I will go with him,” Mrs. Sawa told Vanguard in a telephone interview. “I don’t know who is behind the reports.”Clarifying her absence at the eventful State Executive Council meeting where the resolution to defect to APC in solidarity with Nyako was taken, she said:
“The truth is that I went for an official engagement in Abuja and so maybe because they didn’t see me at the declaration but I cannot point at any person as being behind the reports. If there is anybody spreading the report, that person is telling a lie and he will never see me going the other way and just wants to bring chaos.”

Mrs. Sawa was away at a meeting of the National Council on Environment in Abuja when the decision by the cabinet to defect to the APC was taken.
The Minister of State, for Federal Capital Territory, Ms Jumoke Akinjide on her part has united with her father, Chief Richard Akinjide in following the PDP mainstream supportive of Dr. Jonathan against the position taken by her husband, Rep. Ahman Pategi, a member of the House of Representatives.Pategi from Kwara State, was among the 37 members of the House of Representatives who defected from the PDP to join the APC last month.The minister who lives with her husband and is reported to have a very solid relationship with him in their Abuja home was quoted to have told the online medium, Premium Times, that she would never leave the PDP for the APC. Apparently, the minister’s affection for the PDP will not disrupt the well known affection she is believed to have towards her husband.“I’ll never ever leave the PDP. The Akinjide family is loyal to the PDP and loyal to President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan. My father, Richard Akinjide is a founding member of the PDP and a member of the PDP Board of Trustees.”“I am the arrowhead of the PDP in Oyo State as the minister in an opposition state. I will continue to work hard to ensure the success of Mr. President, the Transformation Agenda, and the success of the PDP at the polls in the 2015 elections.”Arguably one of the most intriguing divisions wrought by the Jonathan phenomenon is the acrimony or lack of it within the Bamanga Tukur and Murtala Nyako families in Adamawa State. Tukur, the national chairman of the PDP is in the frontline in the campaign to get the president a second term in office.Though the preponderance of opinion of stakeholders is that Tukur is the problem with the party, the president it appears is unwilling to let him go upon the fact that the president is unavailable to find someone more loyal to his cause than Tukur in the north.Nyako on the other hand was one of the governors that split from the PDP and subsequently defected to the APC with their principal focus being to frustrate a second term for the president.The split on Jonathan between Chairman Tukur and Governor Nyako along the way also led to their sharp differences on the structure of the PDP in Adamawa State. Tukur eventually prevailed in the split despite the near unanimous revolt the National Working Committee, NWC gave to Nyako a year ago on the issue.
Tukur prevailed simply because of the backing he got from the president.Despite the sharp acrimony between the national chairman and his governor, it is surprising that Tukur’s son, Abati Mahmud Bamanga Tukur remains happily married to Nyako’s daughter, Hadiza Murtala Nyako.
Even more, is the fact that both Tukur and Nyako have a history of intermarriage between them that was crowned with the marriage of Tukur’s son to Nyako’s daughter.The couple according to familiar sources is said to be living in peace impervious to the cat and dog battle between their fathers.“When the daughter wants to visit her father, she goes along with her husband and when the son wants to visit his father, he goes along with his wife and they are both living happily in Lagos,” a source familiar with the family said.
For another female minister in the Jonathan cabinet, her appointment into the Jonathan cabinet became a reality after the exit of her husband from a high flying position in the Jonathan cabinet.Today, husband and wife are said not to be on talking terms following the female minister’s full devotion to Jonathan and his administration, a development that is said to have made the husband to be sulking for the last few years he has been out of his position.For yet another female minister in the Jonathan cabinet, Hajia Zainab Mana President Jonathan would not be faulted for the division that once characterized the family.
Hajia Mana and her husband at the time of the 2007 general election were sharply split in 2007 when her husband, Alhaji Umar Joji Maina left with elements formerly loyal to Atiku Abubakar to contest the gubernatorial elections of that year on the platform of the Labour Party.Joji Maina was running mate to Mr. Joel Madaki in that election while his wife, Zainab was a member of the Board of Trustees, BoT of the PDP actively engaged in the campaign for the election of Alhaji Umar Musa Yar‘Adua.
The political split between husband and wife according to sources was a serious stress that may nevertheless have been resolved with time.
By Emmanuel Aziken, Political Editor

Source: Radio Biafra.

Don’t destroy institutions before you leave, APC tells Jonathan; tread softly on CBN Gov.


All Progressives Congress (APC) has advised President Goodluck Jonathan to tread softly on his alleged plan to force Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Sanusi Lamido Sanusi, to resign, because of the impact such will have on the nation’s economy.
It cautioned that the President should beware so he does not destroy the country’s institutions before he leaves office.
In a statement in Lagos on Thursday by its Interim National Publicity Secretary, Lai Mohammed, the party said asking the CBN Governor to step down, on the basis of a mere allegation that he leaked the letter he (Sanusi) wrote to the President over the unremitted $49.8 billion oil revenue, does not bode well for an economy that is already on crutches.
It warned that any move to suspend Sanusi and use security forces to prevent him from entering his office, as reported by the media, would even be worse, because it will mean that the President is willing to circumvent the provision of the law that the Governor of the CBN can only be removed by two-thirds of the Senate membership.
Not only that, APC said, suspending Sanusi will be a replay of the damage that Jonathan did to the judiciary when he suspended Justice Ayo Salami until his retirement, “and he could easily re-enact such scenario if, for example, he feels that the INEC Chairman has offended him”.
‘’Our worry here is that the President should not destroy our institutions before he leaves office,’’ the party said.
APC said  its main reason for commenting on the planned removal of Sanusi, either through forced retirement or via suspension, is the impact that a crisis of confidence between the President and the CBN Governor will have on the nation’s economy.
‘’These include a loss of confidence in the economic management of the country, leading to uncertainty among domestic and foreign investors; as well as pressure on the exchange rate as foreign portfolio investors in government bonds and the stock market make their exit, and the corresponding fall in the value of share prices.
‘’Overall, a protracted stand-off between the President and the CBN Governor will spell bad news for economic growth and employment and increase poverty.
“This is why we advise President Jonathan against precipitating a crisis in the economy, and we urge all Nigerians to advise him against such,’’ APC said.
The party said there was nothing wrong in a CBN Governor alerting the President to any discrepancy he may have noticed in the remittance of revenue from oil, which is the mainstay of the economy, adding that such action was expected from any CBN Governor who is worth his salt.
It said there is no reason to believe that Sanusi leaked the letter he wrote to the President, especially because the CBN Governor wrote the letter in September and the letter was not leaked until December.
‘’It stands to reason that if the CBN Governor had wanted to leak the letter, he had no reason waiting for four months to do so.
“Also, the moment the letter was sent to Mr. President, it has gone beyond the purview of the CBN Governor, and anyone with a reason to do so could as well have leaked the letter.
‘’Therefore, for the President to have made the extraordinary move to force out the CBN Governor, even though he has a few months to the end of his tenure, smacks of vendetta and is capable of impacting negatively on the economy.
“Circumventing the law to force out the CBN Governor will amount to brigandage and reinforce the perception of the Jonathan Administration as one with a propensity for impunity,’’ the party said.

Source: Radio Biafra.

Good Governance And Democratic Development As Trajectories For Socio-Economic Growth In Nigeria By Kayode Oladele.


By Kayode Oladele

Western political thought is influenced by three writers who have not only come to be categorised as the “the Social Contract” theorists but most importantly, they provide an explanation to the existence and justification of the State as we know it today. These writers are Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean Jacque Rousseau. Though the trio had argued that the emergence of the state could be traced to events in a pre-State era described as the “State of Nature,” they maintained that there was some sort of “Contract” between the people and some entity that later became the state. While these three writers differed on a number of grounds such as the nature of ‘the state of nature,’ what constituted the entity that ‘signed’ the social contract, the power of the people before and after the emergence of the contract and so on, they nevertheless agreed that the aim of the contract was to ensure that there is societal stability and peace.

Apart from the fact that the writings of these scholars continue to influence intellectual treatise on democracy and state actions, in contemporary discourse, without looking too deeply, all states should exist to carry out certain responsibilities. States do not exist for nothing; they have fundamental roles to play in the lives of the people that agree to come under its sovereignty. The fulfilment of these responsibilities means that such a state is keeping its part of the “social contract” with the people. Hence, all states must at least strive to show that they are performing their basic responsibilities to the people by protecting their inalienable rights etc.  It is the seriousness of those in charge of a state in meeting this objective or goal that determines whether there is good governance or bad government. It is the primacy or otherwise of the people’s power (i.e. popular will or general will (as noted by J.J. Rousseau) in determining those that presides over the instruments and organs of the state that shows whether or not a society is democratic.

Having clarified this point, this presentation aims to engage two questions. First, what is the impact of good governance on democracy and human development? Second, what is the Nigerian situation and what should be done? To engage these questions, the rest of this paper is divided into four parts which includes a conceptual clarification, a linkage of core concepts, a discussion of the Nigerian case and a conclusion laced with a few suggestion for ‘the people’ and their leaders. While I have attempted to make this division, this paper is best considered as a narrative that not only raises questions on the role of the state and the benefits of good governance on democracy and the economic well-being of the people but one that attempts to draw suggestions for both the Nigerian people and policy makers/leaders. Thus, these sections are only adopted for the sake of formality to, in a way; meet the expectations of intellectual presentation.
Conceptual Clarification
In this section, bearing in mind that there are no universal definition of concepts in the humanities and social sciences, I would briefly define three concepts that I consider central to this paper: good governance, democracy and human security.

Good governance is derived from the term governance and it also implies that there is bad governance. As noted by a revered radical African scholar, “At the minimum, liberal and radical paradigms would agree that governance refers to the institutions and relations to do with political power: the way political power is exercised and legitimized. But because this process of exercising and legitimising political power could be to the benefit of the people or against the people, governance therefore easily have a capacity to be good or bad. Thus, if there is no good governance in a polity and society, then such human setting would probably operate within the confines of bad governance. We can therefore comfortably agree that good governance is more or less the opposite of bad governance.

In the same vein, there are the thin and the thick definitions of governance. The thin definition, which is the easiest and perhaps the most popular way to define the subject matter, views governance as government or the process through which state actors manage a society through the instrumentality of government. However, the thick definition maintains that it is not only government that is interested in public issues, the people as represented by the various cleavages and groupings within society also play a part in the process even if the government tends to, or in most times, show initiatives or leadership in the governance process. In this perspective, governance could be national just as it could be global, regional, local, societal or even institutional among other spheres of human organization.

Nevertheless, rather than viewing good governance as a “propagandist” or instrumentalist term for the perpetuation of certain powers at the detriment of the people in Nigeria, it could serve as a framework for the judgment of developmental or visionless governments. I elect to see governance from the thick perspective. For this reason and for the purpose of this presentation, my working definition of good governance is that holistic process that involves both the government and the people in the steering of society’s resources for the benefit of the common wealth both in a sustainable manner and in a transparent, accountable and sustainable method.

Having said this, just like or even more than governance, democracy as a concept suffers from the problem of definition. The problem of its lack of a universally accepted definition is further compounded by the multiplicities of democracy. Examples of these typologies include among others: majority rule democracy and polyarchy, illiberal democracy, direct or participatory democracy, liberal democracy and the Marxist or people’s democracy, “delegative democracy”, social welfarist democracy, feminist democracy, green democracy, radical models of democracy, and cosmopolitan democracy, electoral democracy and electoral authoritarianism, and competitive authoritarianism.

Yet, in spite of this challenge of definition and the multiplicity of typologies, the underlining logic of democracy is one that views the people as having the ultimate say in who governs them and what policies take priority in this regard. It is this understanding that makes the Lincolnian conceptualization the most popular: “government of the people, by the people and for the people”. Democracy is a system of government whereby the people are not slaves to their rulers; rather, they not only determine who leads them but they also reserve the right to withdraw their support for such leaders if situation warrants. In a democracy, leaders lead, there is no opportunity for rulers to rule. In addition, democracy will more than likely develop and be stable when the electoral process is transparent and the people enjoy the right to change their leaders periodically without a “political force” playing a dominant role perpetually.
Human security on the other hand, is an understanding and a perspective to the study of security which places prominence on the people. This is a shift from the traditional statist conceptualisation of security which views security in terms of the well-being of the state and its managers. Thus, beyond the traditional view that security should be considered in terms of a nation-state’s ability to protect its territorial integrity as mainly exemplified in military capabilities represented by the quality of men and weapons (arms and ammunitions), human security is best understood in terms of, to borrow the coinage of Amartya Sen, the people’s “capacity to function.”

To ensure that the people in a society acquire this capacity which is the goal of human security, development must be considered in terms of humans and not in mathematical or statistical terms. It is this point that led Dudley Seers in 1969 to rightly argue that for you to say that a society is witnessing development (or even secured), you need to answer three questions: What has been happening to poverty? What has been happening to unemployment?

And what has been happening to inequality?

Therefore, to determine the level of human development and socio-economic growth in Nigeria, these questions should be periodically asked and if the assessment of any of them suggest an increase in the ratio or percentage, then human development or human security is either at its lowest ebb or moving towards it. Simply put: human security lays emphasis on the development of the people that live within a country and it is measured in terms of the standard of living of the people, the level of education, access to healthcare and other social safety nets. The economic well-being of the people is a subset of human security; hence the life span of a democracy will be determined by the level of socio-economic development and human security.
Triple Linkage: Democracy, Good Governance and Human Security
The issues of economic wellbeing of the people speak to the question of human security as espoused above. Human security deals with improving the capacity of the people to function. It includes taking cognisance of the economic well-being of the people. In essence, human security covers the need for economic well-being and even much more.

Democracy is largely understood as a government grounded in the wishes of the people. The people are the most important factor for consideration in policy formulation and implementation. Similarly, good governance is one that differs from bad governance in the sense that state actors strive to implement policies that would bring about the best possible good to the society observing the best practices. From the perspective of government, it is a governance structure that prides itself in the transparency, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness of governance. It is this point that drives the expectation that when there is the deepening of democracy in a society, good governance naturally follows.

Similarly, because democracy and good governance is driven by the people’s wishes or the popular wish, it follows that they would both positively reinforce one another as well as strive for the actualisation of the people’s socio-economic and political wishes. This means that because the people hold the ultimate power, they decide on who leads them based on their trust or expectations that the elected individuals or political parties would actualise their wishes. Thus, rather than antagonise the wishes of the people, democracy provides a platform for the improvement of the economic well-being of the people.
NIGERIA: a case study
The Nigerian democracy is gasping for breath not only because of the poor performance by the political leaders but also because the people have been compromised! I would explain. While those that have been considered leaders have fallen short of our expectations and many cannot in good conscience be regarded as such, the ordinary man, common man or the people have also malfunctioned in a number of ways often justified by poverty, illiteracy or ethnicity.

First is the Monetization of politics and economy. The Nigerian politics is very lucrative and has therefore become a business activity. To contest for positions such as those of the president, governor, legislator, local government chairman or even a councillor, you must either be loaded or have a “godfather”. You either need to borrow massively from the bank or rely on someone, to bankroll your campaigns. Whatever the case, the money must be returned to the source. In Nigeria, we know that godfathers don’t bankroll a candidate for nothing, there is always a string attached. The tragedy is that some of the people are willing to sell their votes which represent their future for as low as  =N=5,000,($31) =N=2,000 ($12), or even =N=1,000 ($6). It is no news that votes are bought for as low as =N=500 ($3) or even with a pint-size portion of rice! With the buying of mandate, political office holders have no social contract with the people to improve their economic well-being. Who suffers? The people! Also, because of what has been termed “representational corruption”, Nigerian politicians earn far more than their colleagues in more developed societies like the UK and India. All this means that the funds that ordinarily should have been available for catering for the economic well-being of the people are reduced.

Second is the tragedy of avoidance of politics by some of the best brains in Nigeria. Nigeria does not have a dearth of thinking individuals who truly have the interest of the country at heart. The problem is that most of these people avoid politics. Where are the intellectuals? You hear them say, “It’s a dirty game” and that they don’t want to stain their hard earned reputations. This has not been helpful as can be seen in the crop of leaders that rule the country today. Nigeria indeed has and can produce better leaders. Again, good governance can only be championed by a ruling class that is developmental in every sense of the word. Therefore, our good materials must be encouraged to come out to salvage the country in every stratum of government the lack of which at the moment injures the prospects for good governance while also contributing to the impoverishment of Nigerians.

Third, good governance is again harmed by the ease at which people resort to violence. Political violence is becoming a habit in Nigeria. With violence, good governance becomes a secondary consideration in political chess game. A leading scholar simply captures it as “violence against democracy”. Today, violence (including the use of bombs) is now an instrument that is deployed for group and individual interest. For the political class, the habit of violence is one where political competition amounts to what Claude Ake referred to as “warfare” to the extent that almost all the politically motivated murders in Nigeria are still unresolved!

At the level of the people, violence is also becoming rampant as buttressed by mob actions and violent ethno-religious conflicts. This was the case in Jos and Niger. Today, the Boko Haram violence has made the worth of the Nigerian life trivial to a point that people are no longer moved with news headlines of tens of deaths. Violence thus diminishes good governance and also undermines human development.

Four, is the absence of issue-based politics. With the massive developmental challenges facing the country, it is pathetic that issues of zoning and clandestine term agreements are enjoying the attention of contenders and their followers. What sense is in zoning in the midst of poverty, hunger and disease? Does poverty have an ethnic name that makes it only Yoruba, Hausa or Igbo? Good governance is driven by minds that are less concerned with petty issues of state of origin and other sectarian considerations.

Five is the issue of corruption. Along with the Boko Haram crisis, the fight against corruption is the most important fight in today’s Nigeria even though, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and sister organizations are doing their bit and could do more with the support of the judiciary, the people and the civil society. Corruption, if left unchallenged will destabilize a country’s efforts at fighting poverty and hinder economic growth and development.  According to Mahmoud Moustafa of the World Bank fame, “empirical studies show that countries with better redistribution of wealth enjoy longer periods of economic development…..and countries suffering from corruption cannot implement sound redistribution policies and thus are not expected to take benefit from sustainable economic development despite embarking upon economic growth from time to time for some reason or the other”.

Thus countries that have low corruption index enjoy positive growth and development by providing greatest happiness for the greatest number of the people while harmful consequence is the case in a country with high corruption index.  In addition, countries with high corruption index also experiences dysfunctional institutions, unfair and unequal treatments and constant encroachment of the rule of law.

Six is the problem of ethnicity. I must say that ethnicity in its self is not a bad thing if it promotes healthy competition among the groups that make up the Nigerian state. But it has historically been a justification for violence, promotion of redundancy and bad governance. People have been killed for no other reason than by the fact that they are from another ethnic group. Mediocre and run of the mills individuals have been retained in public offices for no other reason than the ethnic group that they represent all in the name of satisfying the federal character thereby depriving the country of quality leadership based on merits.

Conclusion: What Role for the People and their Leaders?
I would conclude by stating that while good governance aid the economic well-being of the people, it is critical for both the people and their leaders to take certain actions. The leaders by now know what they should do as represented in the need to prioritise the economic well-being of the people, promote the democratisation of the polity through the strengthening of institutions and embracing transparency and accountability. Leaders should commit themselves to ensuring good governance at all levels. The legislature must strive to gain the support of the people by becoming proactive in its   promotion of good governance. The legislators in the performance of their oversights functions should watch the executive and ensure that good policies are implemented for the benefit of the people.

For the people, they must also become proactive. Civil society Organizations and community based organizations as representatives of the people should strengthen good governance from below by providing the people with the tools they need to question and take charge of their future.  The media must also continue to hold the government accountable to the people while Traditional rulers should avoid confirming chieftaincy titles on corrupt politicians or their cronies who don’t have any feasible means of livelihood other than being friends of political office holders or their spouses. The intellectual class should also take up the challenge of providing a critical intellectual opposition to government. Specifically, they should constantly engage the government on policies and actions that will boost the socio-economic well being of the people and thereby enhance our democratic development.
Being the excerpts of a paper delivered in Lagos recently


The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of SaharaReporters

100 Years and 100 Interesting Facts About Nigeria By By Dr. Peregrino Brimah.

By Dr. Peregrino Brimah

1. Nigeria, with a 2013 estimated population of 174,507,539 is the most populous Black nation and the 7th most populated nation in the entire world, trailing after—from least to most—Pakistan, Brazil, Indonesia, USA, India and China (1.3bn).

2. Nigerians are 1/5th the total population of Black Africa.

3. Nigeria, with 521 languages has the fourth most in the world. This includes 510 living languages, two second languages without native speakers and 9 extinct languages.

4. The Portuguese reached Nigeria in 1472. In 1880 the British began conquering Nigeria’s south. The north was conquered by 1903.
5. Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian Nobel laureate. He wrote ‘Telephone Conversation!’

6. With a net worth of $16.1bn, Nigeria’s Aliko Dangote is the richest Black person in the world.

7. Yoruba and their bloodlines worldwide have the highest rate of twinning (having twins) in the world.

8. The 2006 Census found Nigerians to be the highest educated ethnic or racial group in America.

9. The Northern knot, Arewa insignia has Christian origins, investigation by Ibraheem A. Waziri revealed. It is adapted from the Church Celtic knot.

10. Pre-tribalism: Malam Umaru Altine, a northern Fulani man was the first elected Mayor of Enugu, in the east, and was even re-elected for a second term.

11. Pre-tribalism: John Umoru, from Etsako in today’s Edo State (Western region) was elected for the House of Assembly to represent Port Harcourt in the Eastern Nigerian House of Assembly.

12. The Colonial Cantonments Proclamation of 1914 established ‘foreign quarters,’ ‘Sabon Gari,’ institutionalizing the Sabon Garuruwa system of ‘foreigner’ residential segregation in Nigeria.

13. Crispin Curtis Adeniyi-Jones (1876-1957) who the street in Ikeja, ‘Adeniyi-Jones’ was named after, was a medical director from Sierra Leone (a Saro). As a co-founder of NNDP, he won one of the Lagos 3 legislative council seats in 1923 and represented Nigerians for 15 yrs.

14. Saros was the name given to 19th and 20th century ‘Creole’ African literati migrants from Sierra Leone.

15. Amaros was the name for repatriated Brazilian and Cuban slaves; the ‘Aguda’ people of Lagos today. This Brazilian community includes deportees of the brave “Malê Revolt” in Portugal.

16. British colonization was not all ‘happy trade,’ but involved brutal terror against non-cooperation and stiff opposition. Captain Lord Esme Gordon Lenox, ‘With The West African Frontier Force,’ describes: “…we stormed down to Amassana, which was a town supposed to be friendly and fined them 25 goats and 20 chickens for non-assistance, then returned to Agbeni and burned half…October 1st was spent in continuance of yesterdays incendiraism by burning every town or farm we could see. I shudder to think of how many houses we have destroyed in these two days. On our way back to Egbbeddi in the afternoon we passed by Sabagreia and told our old friend Chief Ijor that most likely we should burn down Sabagreia the next day…”

17. Nigeria’s population was just 16 million in 1911. It is projected to hit 444 million by 2050, surpassing the US and becoming the 4th largest in the world.

18. The population of Lagos today is more than the total population of all Eastern states combined.

19. Lagos’ population in 1872 was 60,000. By 2015 it will be the third largest city in the entire world.

20. Nigeria’s north (719,000 sq. km), occupies 80% of Nigeria’s land mass. In size it is four times the South.

21. 1st republic Aviation Minister, Chief Mbazulike Amaechi hid former South African President, Nelson Mandela, for six months in Nigeria to evade his arrest by the apartheid regime.

22. Gangsta: In 1984 under the disciplinary Buhari/Idiagbon government, there was a sophisticated attempt to kidnap and repatriate ex-civilian regime minister of transport, Umaru Dikko from the UK, anesthetized in a freight crate, for the embezzlement of $1bn under the Shagari regime.

23. Valor: Part of the ‘Forgotten Army,’ Nigerians volunteered to fight with the allied forces among the 81st and 82nd West African Divisions, in the Second World War.

24. The Adubi war in 1918 was a major uprising by 30,000 Abeokuta Ebga warriors against the colonial government for colonization, taxation and slave labor. One British was killed and rail and telegraph lines destroyed. The British rewarded their soldiers with medals for quelling the uprising. Awape Adediran a Molashin/ Kingmaker was imprisoned for his active involvement.

25. Activist Mrs. Fumilayo Ransome-Kuti travelled widely, including to the Eastern bloc (Hungary, USSR and China where she met Mao Zedong). These interactions angered Nigeria, Britain and America. America called her a communist and refused her a U.S. Visa.

26. Mrs. Fumilayo Ransome-Kuti, legendary Fela’s mother, was one of the delegates that negotiated Nigeria’s independence in Britain.

27. According to Lord Luggard, there were 25,000 Qur’anic schools with about 250,000 pupils in the north.

28. Sardauna of Sokoto said he preferred foreign workers to Igbo’s because he felt Igbo’s are domineering. This was while Nigeria existed as regions with regional administrations.

29. Kaduna Nzeogwu killed Sardauna in Nigeria’s first military coup.

30. In 1966, a mischievous Igbo owned bakery allegedly made a loaf of bread with a label that depicted Nzeogwu as the Saint in the ‘Saint George and the Dragon’ medieval tale, killing Sardauna, the ‘dragon,’ this labeled bread provoked deadly anti-Igbo riots.

31. Idrîs Aloma (1571-1603) King of Kanem-Bornu went on pilgrimage and came across firearms. He brought some guns back, along with Turks to train his army on how to use them.

32. Travel Visa was not required to travel to the United Kingdom in 1975.

33. A brand new car sold for N2000 in 1975. A ticket to London was less than N100 in 1975.

34. In 1976, 75 kobo exchanged for one British Pound and 60 kobo for one US dollar.

35. During the Shagari administration in 1985, N7 was exchanging for one dollar.

36. Nigeria took its first loan from the World Bank in 1977.

37. Obasanjo’s first term and Babangida’s regime oversaw the weakening of the naira.

38. General Buhari and Idiagbon rejected IMF demands that Nigeria devalue its currency.

39. Babangida’s coup in 1985 was invaluable to the colonialists suspected to have been in support as it led to Nigeria accepting SAP restrictions, loans and crippling foreign monetary conditions.

40. Nigeria has 5 of the 10 richest pastors in the entire world, with net worth’s according to Forbes, from $10-150 million. They are Pastors, David Oyedepo, E. A. Adeboye, Chris Oyakhilome, Mathew Ashimolowo and Temitope Joshua.

41. Nigeria has the 4th highest number of poor, living under a dollar a day in the entire world. 100 million are ‘destitute’ according to figures from the NBS (National Bureau of Statistics).

42. Nigeria, the 3rd biggest economy in Africa is 160th out of 177 countries in HDI (Human Development Index).

43. Nigeria has the highest paid legislators in the entire world.

44. Based on amount squandered, of an income of $81 billion per year, Nigeria is the most corrupt nation in the world.

45. The nation with the most defrauded people, aka ‘mugus,’ in history, is Nigeria. Successive administrations continue to loot a greater percentage of the nation’s wealth, running in hundreds of billions of dollars.

46. Nigeria in 2013 was rated the worst country to be born based on welfare and prosperity projection.

47. Aliko Dangote funded Presidents Obasanjo, Yar’Adua and Jonathan’s 4th republic campaigns. Buhari rejected funding from Dangote.

48. Usman dan Fodio (1754–1817) was trained in classical Islamic science, philosophy and theology and wrote over 100 books on society, culture, religion, governance and politics. He could only declare Jihad when he was made leader in Gudu {In Islam you can only declare Jihad if you are an official Muslim leader}.

49. The Borno Empire rejected Dan Fodio’s colonization jihad. Al-Hajj Muhammad al-Amîn ibn Muhammad al-Kânemî not only militarily defended his Empire, but also did so by religious, theological, legal and political debates, challenging why a Muslim Empire should colonize another.

50. Kano history has it that a great warrior princess Magajiya Maimuna led her cavalry from Zaria to conquer Kumbwada.

51. Kumbwada in Kano today is ruled by Queen Hajiya Haidzatu Ahmed, who presides over up to half a million subjects. A throne curse which makes men sick and die, keeps males off the throne. {Sadly, the woman ruled Kumbwada is the least funded chiefdom in Nigeria}.

52. Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire) is Nigeria’s leading trade partner in Africa.

53. There are several Nigerian officials in the government of English speaking The Gambia.

54. There is a Nigerian origin, Yoruba chief in Accra. Chief Brimah is the only foreign Chief with a seat in the Ghanaian traditional council.

55. Cross River State: The Ejagham (Ekoi) people in the Southeast are believed to have originated the Nsibidi (Nsibiri) writing system which later spread to the Efik, Igbo, Ibibio, Efut, Banyang and Annag peoples.

56. Discovered in 1928, Nigeria’s western region hosts West Africa’s oldest civilization; the Nok civilization which flourished between 1000 BC and 300 BC. {Nok sculptures recently went on display disappointingly in Germany (not Africa).}

57. Finished in 1460 the Benin Iya or moat is a historic world defense wonder. Spanning 1,200 kilometers with walls as high as 18 metres, it is the world’s largest archeological structure.

58. Sungbo’s Eredo in Ogun state (6°49′N, 3°56′E) is a 100 mile system of up to 70 ft trenches and walls around Ijebu-Ode. It’s Queen, Bilkisu Sungbo has been attributed to the Biblical Queen Sheeba (Queen Bilkis in Quran).

59. Lord Lugard estimated in 1904 that there were 170 walled towns still in existence in the whole of just the Kano province of northern Nigeria. He described Kano: ‘Commercial emporium of the western Sudan.’ Of its wall, he said, ‘I have never seen, nor even imagined, anything like it in Africa.’

60. Osun: Queen Luwo, the twenty-first Ooni (ruler) of Ile-Ife paved the streets with quartz pebbles—and broken pottery, in 1000AD. The architecture had decorations that originated from Ancient America.

61. Borno: The capital city of Kanem-Borno, Ngazargamu, was one of the largest cities in 1658 AD; the metropolis housed “about quarter of a million people” and had 660 well planned, wide and unbending streets.

62. In 1246 AD the Kanemi of Borno created a sensation in Tunisia when he sent a gift of a giraffe to Al-Mustapha, king of Tunis.

63. Sokoto: Two-story buildings with constructions glazed with tsoluwa, (laterite gravel), 10 mile circumference city walls, some as high as 20 feet, is how 16th century Surame, a Sokoto metropolis created by empire ruler, Muhammadu Kanta Sarkin Kebbi, was. UNESCO describes Surame as “one of the wonders of human history, creativity and ingenuity.”

64. Kano: In 1851, this city, one of the largest in Africa, made 10 million sandal pairs and 5 million hides for export.

65. Kebbi: Nigeria’s Sorko Sea lords of Kebbi state, made ships (Kanta) which were used for far away expeditions, including the 1311 AD, 2000 ship, famous voyage of Songhai Empire’s Mansa Abubakari II to the America’s, decades before Columbus.

66. Yobe: The oldest discovered boat in Africa, and 3rd oldest on the world, the 8500 yr old Dufuna canoe was discovered by a Fulani herdsman in 1987 in Dufuna village, Fune LGA.

67. Ondo: Confusing evolution scientists, the 13,000 yr old Iwo-Eleru cave skull, the oldest human fossil remains found in West Africa, has ‘ancient’ (140,000 yr old Laetoli) features, yet lived in more modern times.

68. Benin Kingdom: The high quality and highly sophisticated bronze work of the Benin Kingdom dating as far back as the 13th century is a world wonder. Great works in iron, wood, ivory, and terra cotta products also highlight the empire’s history.

69. Benin Kingdom: Lourenco Pinto, captain of a ship that carried missionaries to Warri in 1619, described Benin kingdom, ‘Great Benin where the king resides is larger than Lisbon, all the streets run straight and as far as the eyes can see….’

70. Akwa Ibom: King Jaja of Opobo (1821–1891) founded Opobo city-state in 1867 and shipped palm oil to Britain independently of British middle men.

71. Ancient Greeks appear to have Nigerian roots as supported by the Benin Haplogroup or Haplogroup 19. According to Jide Uwechia, ‘The Benin Haplotype (which originates from Nigeria, West Africa) accounts for HbS associated chromosomes in Sicily Northern Greece.’

72. Ilorin’s Oba Afonja utilized Fulani warriors to help rebel against the Oyo Empire. The warriors after defeating Oyo took over Ilorin and Sheikh Alimi, their leader became the first Emir.

73. Much of north Nigeria was part of the Songhai Empire. Muhammad Kanta annexed Kebbi and other states between 1512 and 1517.

74. The Obasanjo military regime converted Nigeria from a Parliamentary system to a Presidential system of government.

75. Much of traditional pre-colonial Nigeria operated a parliamentary form of government. The council of elders could make or impeach the King.

76. General Johnson Thomas Umurakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi on 24 May 1966, with Decree No. 34, dissolved Nigeria’s regions, creating provinces. He unified Regional Public Services under a single Commission. Riots were provoked in Kano and mutiny in Abeokuta; eventually there was a coup.

77. In 1967 Gowon split the four regions into 12 states.

78. Gowon’s Decree No. 8 of 1967 after the Aburi conference restored Nigeria as a confederacy.

79. Late President Murtala Muhammed’s dad, Pam Azatus Iyok was from Dogon-Gaba, near Vom in Plateau state, Nigeria’s Middle Belt. Pam became a Muslim and married Ramat from Kano. Murtala Muhammed’s wife, Hafsat Ajoke was a Yoruba lady.

80. Ex- President Yakubu Gowon from Jos state (Middle Belt) is a Christian. General Obasanjo was his Army chief who helped him defeat the Biafra attempted secession from 1967-1970.

81. Nigeria has been ruled for 30 years by Christians (25 years if Azikiwe is excluded).

82. Mujahid Asari Dokubo, the leader of the southern Movement for Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) and the most vocal enemy of the north, is a Muslim.

83. Nigeria is not roughly divided between a Muslim north and a Christian South. The far north, east and far south do have concentrations, but the rest of the nation defies such demarcations.

84. In the Southwest, Osun, Lagos, Ondo and Oyo have a higher population of Muslims than Christians according to counts. Benue, Nasarawa and Plateau in the north have Christian majorities.

85. According to the Senate joint committee, Nigeria’s chief terrorist leader, Abubakar Shekau is not a Nigerian; he hails from Niger republic. {Shekau is believed by security services to be deceased.}

86. According to current demographics, after Hausa-Fulani (29%), Yoruba (21%), Igbo (18%) and Ijaw (10%) comes Kanuri (4%) and then Ibibio (3.5%) and Tiv (2.5%).

87. Not really a northern caucus, but it was late M. K. O. Abiola that orchestrated and sponsored the Buhari /Idiagbon coup and then again the Babangida coup overthrow of Buhari. –Shagari memoir, “Beckoned to Serve;” Babangida, “Karl Maier – Midnight in Nigeria.” (Max Siollun)

88. The leading caucus is basically a childhood friendship: President Obasanjo was childhood friends with President Babangida, President Abacha and Commander Danjuma.

89. President Babangida was childhood friends with President Abdulsalam.

90. President Obasanjo graduated Abdulsalam who later became President and went on to hand over power to democratically arranged President Obasanjo.

91. Under the Presidential system, Nigerians have had 7 years total Northern rule and 11+ years Southern rule.

92. Total civilian rule, Parliamentary and Presidential, Nigeria has had 12 years Northern and 11+ years Southern rule.

93. 6 coups is the highest number of any nation in Africa. Nigeria along with Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Uganda and Mauritania are the nations with 6 coups.

94. The Biafra war included a ‘Mid West invasion.’ The Midwest was either a battle field or in Biafra’s sights—Dr. Nowamagbe A. Omoigui relays.

95. The Biafra 12th battalion headed by Lt Col Victor Adebukunola Banjo captured Benin and set out to capture Ibadan and Lagos.

96. The Biafra 13th battalion, led by Ivenso entered Kwara, now Kogi and captured Okene, Atanai and Iloshi.

97. Cameroon was an administrative part of Nigeria in 1945, hence the NCNC party (National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons). Towards independence the UN mandated British held former German territory, south Cameroon opted to join French Cameroon and not Nigeria.

98. J.C. Vaughn, Ernest Ikoli, H.O. Davies, Obafemi Awolowo and Sam Tsuiuel Akinsanya founded the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM) in 1934 to promote national unity particularly between Yoruba and Igbo.

99. Azikiwe left Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM) because he claimed the organization had been seized by Yoruba’s and it discriminated against Igbo’s including himself.

100. Oyo defeats Ashanti: In 1764 the Ashanti army marched on Dahomey, Togo. At Atakpamé, the Ashanti army was ambushed and sacked by Dahomean infantry and female elite soldiers allied with forces from the Oyo Empire. Ashanti King Kusi Obodum was destooled after the defeat.

Nigeria’s century compilation was created as a historical snapshot of peculiar events, for our benefit and that of Nigeria’s younger generations. It was compiled to the best of our ability and influenced by our learning, recollection and prejudices. We invite Nigerians to collect and share with us more important and unique events that define 100 years of Nigeria. Resources utilized here can be found on

Dr. Peregrino Brimah %5BEvery Nigerian Do Something]
Email: Twitter: @EveryNigerian.


Nobody can hold Nigeria to ransom – Jonathan talks tough.


Jonathan the Salah Man

President Goodluck Jonathan, on Sunday, declared that no individual, group or persons or terrorist organisation could hold the nation to ransom.Jonathan spoke at the first Sunday service in 2014 which he attended at the Church of Christ in Nations (COCIN), Garki, Abuja.He vowed to end insecurity and spate of killings in some parts of the North being perpetrated by the Boko Haram sect.The president, who described the terrorist’s onslaught as ephemeral, assured that the country would soon be liberated from it.Jonathan reiterated his administration’s commitment to working harder to ensure that “nobody or group of persons will be able to hold Nigeria to ransom’’.The president said his administration was working hard to build a country that the future generation would be proud of.“Boko Haram is temporary, Boko Haram will surely go. We will do all our best to end it.“A number of countries have faced similar challenges and they have been able to overcome them. We will surely overcome Boko Haram.“Life in the North must change, development must go to all parts of this country and nobody or group of people can hold this country to ransom.“We will collectively liberate this country from the hands of any evil person that is trying to set us backward.“We will do our best and build a country that our children and our grandchildren will be proud of,’’ he said.Jonathan said his administration would work hard to improve the standard of living of Nigerians.The president, who likened nation building to the planting of crops or the process of building a house, said that such development would not come overnight but through a process.“Let me reassure you that we will continue to work harder and harder to improve the quality of lives of Nigerians.“You cannot achieve this overnight. I always say that and sometimes I am always misquoted when I say we cannot achieve this overnight.“Even if you go and plant a crop, it takes a period before you start seeing the fruits.“I always tell people that if you have all the money in this world today to build a house and you want to build a simple two-storey building, it must still take some time to build,” he said.The president noted that the heated political environment being experienced in the country in recent times was neither unusual not peculiar to Nigeria.He said the USA, which is generally regarded as a great country, had same experience recently to a point of near shutting down.Jonathan assured Nigerians that the perceived confusion notwithstanding, only the will of God would be done in the country.

Source: Radio Biafra.

President Jonathan Nigeria must be saved from evil people.



President Goodluck Jonathan, yesterday, stoked his campaign against perceived enemies of the country, saying that Nigeria “must be liberated from evil people”.

He also insisted that his administration was committed to combating the threat posed by the Boko Haram sect. The President noted that the Boko Haram menace was a temporary problem that will be defeated.

Speaking at the first Sunday church service of the year at the Church of Christ In Nations (COCIN) Abuja, President Jonathan said no person or group will be allowed to hold the nation to ransom.

According to him, the country must be liberated from “evil persons” in order to bequeath to generations unborn, a country that they would be proud of.
“Nobody or group can hold this country to ransom. We will collectively liberate this country from any evil person, so that we can leave behind a Nigeria that our children and grandchildren will be proud of”, he said.

Speaking on the Boko Haram insurgency, President Jonathan noted that “Boko Haram is temporary, Boko Haram will surely go. A number of countries are facing similar challenges and some have been able to overcome it and surely we will overcome Boko Haram. Life in the North must change; development must go to all parts of this country”.

On the political situation in the country, the president said there was nothing unusual in the heightened political situation.

“Let me reassure you again that myself and those who have been elected in this period, that the political environment is always noisy all over the world. There is nowhere you won’t hear so much noise. Even the United States of America, not long ago, the country was almost shut down. For so many months people were worried that the country that has practiced democracy for so many years could get to that situation. But that is politics for you.

“But let me reassure you that we will continue to work harder to improve the quality of lives of Nigerians. We are particularly committed to knowing where our challenges are, especially in some parts of the North. We are quite pleased with the measures from the outgoing President (of COCIN) and the measures of the incoming President concerning Boko Haram. We sympathize with those who have been affected by the executions.”

Delivering Pastoral greetings to the congregation, the new President of COCIN, Rev. Dachollom Datiri noted that the church has suffered greatly from Boko Haram attacks in its branches in the North East.
He, however, commended the President for declaring State of Emergency in the three northern states of Yobe, Borno and Adamawa, which he said has checked activities of the insurgents.

Datiri also commended the President for being able to ensure constant supply of petroleum products in the country in the past two years and the recently called off strike by the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) even as he hoped that 2014 will be strike-free.

“Your transformation agenda is loveable and commendable. You are always in church and God will never forget you. When a leader puts the things of God first, all other things shall be added unto him,” he said

Noting that the storms toward the 2015 election are man-made, he prayed that they will soon be over and that no evil plan will succeed in Nigeria.

“COCIN is ever thankful to God for giving you to Nigeria, COCIN members despite political affiliations will support you” he said.

In his sermon titled ‘Usefulness’, he said that no individual can claim to know the will of God without first being useful, fruitful or productive.

Taking the congregation through 2nd Timothy 2: 14-26; Ephesians 2: 10; 2nd Corinthians 9:8 and 2nd Timothy 3: 17, he said that there are some milestones to be scaled before a believer can be useful to God.

Source: Radio Biafra.

By Ben Agande

PDP Crisis Deepens: Jonathan begs Govs Aliyu, Lamido.


The alleged resolve by majority of the governors of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) to remove the embattled National Chairman of the party, Alhaji Bamanga Tukur, forced the Presidency to suspend the meeting of the Board of Trustees (BoT) and National Executive Committee, NEC, Sunday Vanguard has learnt.

It also emerged that President Goodluck Jonathan wanted the party leadership to have more time to persuade warring Governor Babangida Aliyu of Niger State and his Jigawa State counterpart, Alhaji Sule Lamido, to return fully to the PDP before the NEC meeting.

The NEC meeting, earlier fixed for Wednesday, January 8, will now hold on January 16, with the BoT meeting scheduled for January 15 and the National Caucus meeting slated for January 14.

It was gathered that the Presidency got strong evidence that the anti-Tukur forces, led by a South-south governor and a minister, who is also from the South-south, compelled the party hierarchy to postpone the meetings.

A party leader told Sunday Vanguard, last night, that the governor, who has the ears of many other PDP governors, was frontally opposed to the continued retention of Tukur and had successfully mobilised for the removal of the party chairman during the NEC meeting.

The governor was said to have met and agreed with the South-south minister, who is also close to Jonathan, to impress upon other governors to do all that was necessary to remove Tukur at the meeting.

However, Jonathan, who is opposed to disgracing the party boss out of office, reportedly asked for the postponement of the two meetings to allow for peace to reign.

The argument of the governor and the minister is that apart from being loyal to Jonathan, Tukur has allowed the party to be factionalised to a point that five governors left.

But the pro-Jonathan camp within the party allegedly argued for the retention of Tukur because of his exceptional loyalty to the president.

The meeting was also said to have been postponed at the instance of the president to give the party leadership more time to persuade Governors Aliyu and Lamido to forget the past and fully return to the party ahead of the 2015 elections.

Jonathan was alleged to have expressed worry that the true position of the two governors on the party remained unknown even though they did not defect along with their five colleagues in the G7 last December to the opposition All Progressive Congress, APC.

But the Secretary of the PDP BoT, Senator Walid Jibrin, explained that the meetings were postponed for logistics reason and to enable members return from their Christmas and New Year break.

“We actually want to have a full house during the meetings so that all party issues could be effectively discussed,” Jibrin said.

It will be recalled that prior to the defection of Governors Abdulfatah Ahmed of Kwara; Aliyu Magatakarda Wamakko of Sokoto; Musa Rabiu Kwankwaso of Kano; Murtala Nyako of Adamawa and Chibuike Amaechi of Rivers to APC, there was pressure on Tukur to convene the NEC meeting where the problems of the PDP would be addressed against the backdrop that the last NEC was held before the August 31, 2013 Special National Convention.

The NEC meeting ought to have taken place in the third week of December last year, but was shelved for inexplicable reasons.

Source: Radio Biafra.

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