As I gather my thoughts for my new year resolutions, it just crossed my mind to take a look back in time and to show how bad leadership has been a major drag on the progress of Nigeria for much of our 53 years of independence. I want to begin this piece with a self confession about what I need to do better in 2014. I get regular feed backs from fans of this column around the world and I am grateful for them. While the great majority admit and thank me for sharing my thoughts with them, a respectable minority including one or two of my trusted friends and confidants have wondered aloud if I could make those articles shorter. It is a correct observation I plan to work on in the new year.
I am not a trained journalist. I do have some journalists I so much respect for their lucid language and brevity. Three of them include a gentleman named Sonala Olumhense who proudly won “the journalist of the year award from Sahara Reporters on December 21 at their well attended Christmas Party in New York. The other two are Okey Ndibe and Rudolf Okonkwo. They all can write and their articles are never as lengthy or wordy as mine. I have become their student for the most part, and part of my new year resolution is to emulate them more in 2014 and beyond. I crave your indulgence to let this be the longest article for this year. It is a promise I mean to keep. So help me God.
I make this confession because I have come to realize that “To err is human and to forgive is divine.” Above all I have come to appreciate that the closest that any human being will ever get to perfection as observed by Sigmund Freud, is to admit his or her mistakes. I see Governor Oshiomhole as fitting that bill even though many of you may disagree with me. Many have criticized Governor Oshiomhole of Edo State for losing his cool in the public and openly humiliating a Nigerian widow in Benin for breaking the Law by turning his government’s newly constructed road in Benin into a market place thereby creating a public nuisance. In a moment of frustration or desperation, the Governor, a former trade union leader and activist lost his cool and uttered a few words that are beneath the dignity of office.
For that infraction, the Governor has been ridiculed for weeks in newspapers and on the Internet and television studios around the world for abusing his power in pretty much the same way like the news media came down very hard on Pastor Oyedepo the General Overseer of Winners Chapel in Nigeria for arrogantly and physically abusing a member of his congregation. The nation and the whole world including Pope Francis would be shocked to see such a brutal and judgmental display of power on television cameras by a cleric who should have exercised more restraint if he was of the same mindset with the new hope who cautioned pastors to not judge others.
What I take away and what I hope the readers of this column would take away from the two incidents is how the Governor and Pastor Oyedepo have reacted to public criticisms of their horrendous abuse of power. Governor Oshiomhole did not waste time admitting he did something wrong while Pastor Oyedepo defended his right to so intimidate the little girl who dared to tell the pastor what he did not want to hear. You may disagree with how Governor Oshiomhole had sought to get some political mileage out of what he did to correct the mistake, but I would be the first to submit to you that the Governor did the right thing and he set an example in magnanimity and a heart-felt admission of guilt not easy to find among most African leaders with the possible exception of Madiba Nelson Mandela, Julius Nyerere and Murtala Mohammed who demanded from the press to hold his feet to fire if he departed from what he had promised the nation on taking over from General Yakubu Gowon. That kind of compassion is not something Nigerian politicians and leaders are noted for. Once in power, most of our leaders act and behave like “tin gods” who are above the Law. I will give a few examples of such leaders in Nigeria and how few of them have handled what many of their subjects or victims would have considered a clear abuse of their position and power.
Once upon a time in Akure, my home town, there was a Deji of Akure named Odundun Asodedero who reigned from 1882 to 1890 as documented in my “Lion King and the Cubs” a biography of Kabiyesi Deji Adesida Afunbiowo the First which has sold more than 200,000 copies as of last Saturday. Deji Odundun once ordered one of his wives beheaded for sharing a joke with him in the bathroom. He gave the order because he could, but worse still, he ordered the woman’s head delivered in cold blood to the parents of his wife to show them he had the power of life and death. He got away with the murder because Pax Britanica and the Rule of Law had not yet taken hold in our own neck of the woods in Nigeria at the time.
Oba of Benin, Ogiso Overamen demonstrated the same feudalistic power in 1897 when he ordered his traditional troops to attack the British invaders who wanted to enter Benin during his “Igue” festival when the city was not supposed to welcome or entertain any foreign elements. Due to some bad communication or foolhardiness, the Benin Expedition led by one Captain Philips ended in total fiasco for the Oba who was captured and exiled to Calabar where he died almost changing the course of history in Benin City before “Afinju Oba Ado Otolu Apara” Eweka, the father of Oba Akensua came on board.
The very same year, on June 22, 1897 Oba Adesida Afunbiowo the First was crowned the Deji in Akure after two futile attempts at getting the nod of the king makers.
3 months after his coronation, the Anglican Missionaries came to Akure followed in quick succession by the emissaries of the colonial Government based in Lagos. Oba Adesida who was a very knowledgeable and versatile Ifa consultant had consulted his Ifa because he had learnt some useful lessons from what had just occurred in Benin. His Ifa had revealed to him to expect some foreign visitors but that he must welcome them to his domain with open hands and not antagonize them. He was assured their coming was going to forever change the fortunes of his town and his own tenure on the throne like no other Deji before him. As sure as death, the white visitors came and Oba Afunbiowo did precisely what his” Orunmila, Ifa Atererekaiye, o soro dayo” had told him. That simple obedience to Ifa, the only God he knew and devotedly worshiped had laid the foundation for what Akure later became in the history of Ondo State starting with her initial elevation from provincial headquarters, to state capital and later on in 2004 to the 8th Millennium Center for Development in Africa. Oba Afunbiowo the First came about his oriki or popular cognomen in Akure dialect, “Aga a morire, O toye gboro, O m’oyinbo goke, Iwerepe gbara re gba igi oko, Olori alade a jiwajiwa Ileke, o tori ileke d’oluku Oyo, O beri omo sa gongon t’Oke Eda ro do.”
Oba Afunbiowo became the longest reigning Deji in all of Akure history with his 60 years on the throne and another 46 years added by three of his direct children and one direct daughter and 3 great grand daughters as Regents in Akure. The individuals include Deji Agunsoye Ademuagun Adesida, the first educated Deji and attorney who succeeded Afunbiowo for 16 years from 1957 to 1973, followed by Deji Otitubiosun Adelegan Adesida who reigned from 1975 to 1991 and Deji Ataiyese Adebobajo Adesida who reigned from 1991 to 1999 followed by his daughter, Princess Adeyinka Adesida who reigned as regent from 1999 to 2005 the previous Regents included Princess Adetinu Famotua who succeeded her father in 1957 before Ademuagun came on board. The next was Princess Adebusola Oduntan Odunlami who succeeded her learned Barrister father in 1973. The next was Madam Aina who succeeded her father Deji Otutubiosun Adelegan Adesida for less than a year in 1991. The next Regent in line is going to be” Omo Oba to nfase mutin,” Kabiyesi Princess Adetutu Adesida a licensed Pharmacist in Houston, Texas who is going to take a leave of absence from her big job in Texas, United States to answer the call of duty like all the previous Adesidas before her.
The first “non-omo-ori- ite” Deji Adebiyi Adegboye Adesida Afunbiowo the Second who in 3 years on that throne has done what no Deji before him has ever done in Akure history made his transition 24 days ago. He built a new Palace all by his own effort and he took to his grave the chairmanship of the Ondo State Council of Obas. The chairmanship was among the many firsts he has recorded in his short but epoch-making tenure in that office. The written history of Akure is by and large the history of the Adesidas on the throne of Akure any way you slice it. The only time in 2005 Akure ever attempted to alter that succession to the Deji’s throne has ended in regret and disaster with the imposition of the so-called Osupatadolaa the Third who cannot tell us when Osupatadolaa the Second ever reigned in Akure. The classification as the Third was a ruse. Nothing more nothing less. You are free to double-check this information from the list of the 46 Dejis who have so far ruled in Akure as listed in the Lion King and the Cubs” which is there for anybody to buy and read. The deposed Deji who is now begging for forgiveness he has always denied others got kicked out of that office by doing something no Deji has ever done in 900 years of Akure history.
I am not making up the story. I am only documenting what happened for generations yet unborn in the interest of History.
Now talking about abuse of power and compassion, Deji Afunbiowo the First was exemplary. As narrated in my “Lion King”, Deji Afunbiowo belonged to a different kettle of fish as compared to Deji Odundun. Deji Afunbiowo had fallen in love with “Otubeji , O dumosa luku Aiyegbe” the fiancee of one of his Palace servants named Tapere Famotua. “Adumosa” an Ado-Akure beauty born and raised at Itaogbolu had come on a visit to Akure Palace to cheer his fiance, Omodeowa Famotua who was taking part in the “Owa Oropo” annual festival, which was the Akure equivalent of the New York or the Boston Marathon in those days for those of you who know Akure history very well like i do. Who says the black race is inferior to the white race? Akure has been having her own marathon race hundred of years before you ever hear of the New York Marathon. I can tell you that.
Deji Afunbiowo saw the lady in the crowd and he sent for her like he had the power to do. Without knowing the lady had come to cheer up her boy friend, Kabiyesi made his irreversible pronouncement as the “Ka bi o ko si” meaning nobody challenges your authority or reverse your order. That was how the stunning beauty from Itaogbolu became his Olori (queen) from that moment forward to the total frustration of Omodeowa Famutua who could not say a word because his lord and master has spoken and he was in no position to hold a contrary view. Kabiyesi had what he wanted. He married Adumosha and within a short time he conferred on her the high title of the “Eyelua” of the Oloris in Akure because the Eyelua was an “Afinju Adaba to njeun lawujo Asa” meaning “the gutsy and fearless dove that feeds among the eagles in the wild” Be ni o.Egun Mogaji ni Eyelua. She was an exemplary woman of distinction on her own merit. The woman naturally rose to prominence very quickly among her peers in the Palace because she quickly captured the heart of Kabiyesi but Kabiyesi became worried after he knew he had snatched the fiancee of one of his Palace servants. He was a Deji who valued loyalty and service like no other Deji n Akure. He therefore decided to do what many of the religious people of nowadays label as “Restitution” even though the man was never a born-again Christian and he never saw the four walls of a school talk less of a University, but he was a very selfless and compassionate Deji of all times who obey the Biblical injunction of “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”.
He admitted his mistakes pretty much like Governor Oshiomhole. He decided to compensate Pa Famotua after profusely apologizing to him for taking his fiancee. He decided to give his own first daughter, the impeccably beautiful Mama Tinuade Adesida in marriage to Pa Famotua. He did not stop there. He gave Pa Famotua freedom from his burden as a palace servant and a slave in the Palace up to that point. That was how Famotua changed from a commoner to become a nobility or a Duke and the husband of a “crown princess” in Akure till tomorrow. That was Oba Afunbiowo at his best. There would never be another Deji like him from now to eternity. God knows it and Akure people know it.
Now let us compare what Afunbiowo had done to what the deposed Deji who is now begging the Ondo State Governor to please reinstate him, even before the last Deji’s funeral rites have been completed and his first daughter, Princess Adetutu crowned as the next Regent of Akure according to Akure tradition and custom. If the deposed Deji had learnt his lesson by now, he would have thought twice before displaying such a poor judgment and lack of traditional restraint to say the least. It was the wrong step to take at a time Akures at home and abroad are still mourning the last Deji and wanting to investigate what killed him and who could have been responsible for taking out his life like “a candle in the wind” while the ovation was loudest and before he has had a chance to spend just one night in the majestic Taj Mahal he has built with his own sweat and blood which the deposed Deji now wants to inherit. “Haba! O ti o. Ki t’Esu ko”.
I trust the Akure Council of Chiefs under High Chief Oteru Oba Ode. O mori J’Oloja mo dade” James Olusoga to do the right thing, I trust Governor Mimiko, the peoples’ Governor to not allow the desperate individual to dent his image in Akure. The less we speak about the full implications and ramifications of what the deposed Deji has done, the better for him and all the aspiring candidates to the Deji’s throne as we speak. We would cross the bridge when we reach it for Heavens’ sake. If the deposed Deji was a leader like Oshiomhole, he would think twice before doing what he was publicized to have done. It’s that simple.
Akure and the whole of Nigeria would need to go back to his record on the throne and what he did to deserve his exile to begin with. Forget his indiscretions in claiming to be the reincarnation of Deji Odundun. Forget his indiscretion in giving a bounced post-dated check to the king makers before he fooled them into in recommending him as Deji-elect to the Ondo State Government. Forget his suspension, removal and humiliation of arguably the best Olisa Akure has ever produced. I am talking of Olisa Otutuleyowo the Second, retired Colonel, Elijah Folorunsho David whom I am proud to call my In-law and my childhood friend and whose record in that title is second to none above board if you discount his undiplomatic streak of talking and acting like a soldier who meant what he said and said what he meant without fear or favor by appearing to rubbish or tarnish the reputation of the Adesidas in Akure while he had the power. That was his problem in retrospect, but he was a very good Olisa without any question in my mind and all things considered.
Forget the the deposed Deji going around repossessing lands that his predecessor on that throne had sold and canceling any contracts or deals they have signed as Deji-in-Council. Forget his failure to honor the memory of the greatest Deji in History when he turned down the invitation to be the royal father at the formal launching of the book honoring the life and legacies of that Deji. Forget the shabby treatment he gave to the Oloba of Oba-Ile, a fellow traditional ruler for giving new space to Hausa Tomatoe traders the deposed Deji had banished from Alafiatayo market in Akure because they could not pay him the inflated royalties he had wanted them to pay him. Forget the shabby treatment he had given to the same Akure Council of Chiefs he is now begging to take him back. Forget his failure to stand up to the Alaiyede of Ogbese when the Alaiyere, the late Bale Olatunde Ogunsuyi he himself has installed in his Palace was disrespected by the present Alaiyede of Ogbese when he instigated Akure North Local Government to not pay the salaries and allowances to her daughter who served as regent of Alayere following the death of her father, Bale Olatunde Ogunsuyi, the shortest reigning Alayere who reigned for only a day or two after his conferment of the title by the deposed Deji.
Kabiyes, the Alaiyede and retired Professor of Law, Oba Peter Oluyede had claimed that Alayere title was no longer under the Deji of Akure and the new Alayere after Bale Olatunde Ogunsuyi had sided with the Alaiyede saying that the Alayere owed no allegiance to the Deji of Akure because the authority of the Deji does not extend to the Akure North Local Government as deposed by the Alaiyede of Ogbese. The question now begging for answer is how can any candidate with any claim or linkage to the Alayere throne now come forward to claim they have a right to contest and be crowned a Deji in Akure when the rubber meets the road? What goes around comes around. Now that the Deji’s throne is vacant, we are now waiting to see how this observation is going to play out. The Olu abo of Ilu Abo Bale Oluyemi Falae who did not at any time gang up with the Laiyede to rebel against the Deji and the Olugunshin of course are the only Bales in Akure North Local Government who can stand tall now and claim they have always been loyal to the Deji of Akure.
Forget all the indiscretion of the deposed Deji when he gives chieftaincy titles only to the highest bidder in Akure regardless of those candidate’s entitlement to those titles. We all knew what he did to Yemi Oluwadare, a former President of Akure National Students Union in the United Kingdom when he was just a floor member. Mrs. Gbonjubola Adesida, the wife of Prince Raphel Adesola Adesida was the first and original Iyalode of Akure when he was installed by Deji Otutubiosun Adelegan Adesida. Akure will not forget how the deposed Deji had refused to recognize Gbonjubola as such because the deposed Deji was only looking out for the highest bidder.
Compared that to what Afunbiowo the First had done when he made late Kole Oluwatuyi the Second as the Olisa of Akure without taking a penny from him because he had wanted to compensate him because his own father, a devout CAC believer like late Olubadan Akinyele of blessed memory, had died within 3 months of his becoming the Olisa. Deji Afunbiowo the First who never went to school for one day had valued education so much that he persuaded his Akure Council of Chiefs to let Kole Oluwatuyi succeed his father without giving any bribe to anybody because he wanted an educated Olisa to be his second-in command.
That was how Olisa Kole Oluwatuyi the Second became” Olisa Abejoye” in Akure history till tomorrow. Let anyone speak up or prove me wrong with their facts if they have them. Nigeria is in big trouble because nothing is documented. The way we are going an Igbo man with enough cash to throw around, could,one day, be crowned an Olisa, or Odopetu or Sao or even the Deji in Akure because our value system has been bastardized by Corruption. If you remember that Otun Maiyegun of Ibadan was Orji Uzor Kalu, the former filthy-rich Abia Governor who could, one day, become the Olubadan, you will understand what I am talking about. The deposed Deji would have no qualms allowing an Igbo man to become a High Chief in Akure if the price is right. Ofei Day Spring and Chukwuemeka I grew up with in Akure and who have married Akure daughters and get children from them could tomorrow claim they are descendants of Osupa and Odundun or Obabirin Eyearo the first female Deji in Akure History and they may seek to be crowned a Deji or a high chief in Akure if light weights like the deposed Deji ever get a chance to be crowned a Deji one time too many in Akure. That is just the truth.
The deposed Deji is asking Governor Mimiko to reinstate him forgetting what he did. It is true that Olowo Olagbegi regained his throne after Olowo Adekola Ogunoye, after 25 years in exile. The deposed Deji ought to have known that he could not even tie the sachet of the shoes of Olateru Olagbegi talk less of claiming parity with the great Oba. He would be living in self fantasy and self delusion to compare himself to” Igi Nla” Ekun w’olu Olowo Olateru Olagbegi whose first son Kabiyesi Folagbade, a lawyer by profession, was Chairman of the Ondo State Council of Oba to issue a suspension order banning the deposed Deji from attending the meeting of Ondo State Council of Obas even before Governor Mimiko was forced to act on the scandal by forces beyond his control at the time because he thought the deposed Deji could help his political fortunes in the state capital.
Olowo Folagbade Olateru Olagbegi had acted that way because he argued the deposed Deji had disgraced the institution of Obas in Nigeria by going to the market square to go beat up his wife. If the deposed Deji thinks Nigerians and Akure people at home and abroad have forgotten that, then I have an island to sell to him in the Pacific. That the wife he had sent to her grave is no longer around to plead her own cause should give Akure king makers and his Osupa Ruling Line embracing Odundun descendants food for thought. I believe their current Chairman, the highly respected Dr. Adebimpe Ige Aladejana Ogunleye, who fought for the creation of the ruling line more than anybody, dead or alive, would not fail to factor that observation into his decision when it is time to nominate candidates for the vacant stool. We would all be watching from the sideline.
While it is true that Governor Mimiko is rumored to have granted a general amnesty or pardon to ghost workers who have have fraudulently claimed salaries in Ondo State, it will be very naive of the deposed Deji to expect the same kind of pardon, given the enormity of his traditional transgression. I love and care a lot about Governor Mimiko, but I have some misgivings about what kind of message he was sending to Nigerians if it is true he has granted that clemency as rumored on the internet. It would even be more egregious if he entertains the request from the deposed Deji or give it any serious consideration.
I make all these digressions to further emphasize and underscore my respect for Governor Oshiomhole for having the courage of his conviction to admit he fumbled, big time, by saying what he said to the poor widow. He has acquitted himself creditably in my judgment, however, by taking steps to correct his mistakes and finding a more cost-effective way to rehabilitate the woman. If most of our leaders have been so inclined, Nigeria would not be in the mess she has found herself now under President Jonathan.
I recall Obasanjo after taking over from Murtala Mohammed going to an official appointment somewhere in the North and taking out the whip to teach one Nigerian a lesson he would never forget. Obasanjo who is well known for his crudeness, clearly abused his power and authority that day, but he got away with it, and he never for once apologised to the nation or his victim for what he did. That Oshiomhole would go out of his way to openly apologize to the woman before television cameras should be seen as a sign of progress and I applaud him for it. He is letting the whole world know he is not perfect and that he can lose his cool just like anyone of us.
What the poor woman did was wrong. That she was a widow was no excuse for her to do what she did because two wrongs don’t make a right. A two term Governor who is not seeking re-election could easily have ridden out the public criticism but Oshiomhole did not do that. He did the right thing and he should be commended for it.
As I compare what he did with how our current President has literarily ignored all the criticism he has so far received on Oduahgate, the public example shown by Oshiomhole has loomed larger than life in my book. It is common knowledge that President Jonathan and his first lady have been sending hoodlums and assassins after Governor Rotimi Amaechi of Rivers State as confirmed by the Nobel peace laureate, Wole Soyinka. The problems in Rivers state today are all the brain child of the President and the first lady who are clearly abusing their powers of incumbency to intimidate a weaker opponent or their perceived enemies as insinuated in Obasanjo’s 18 page letter to Mr. President.
The Governor of Central Bank, Lamido Sanusi has written volumes on how the NNPC has misappropriated billions of dollars in oil money which has not been fully accounted for. President Jonathan who says he is fighting Corruption is looking the other way and his body language as suggested by the current Speaker of the House of Representative and as corroborated by Obasanjo is a proof that Jonathan has lost all his credibility on fighting corruption in Nigeria and he should be ashamed of himself. He cannot have the courage to fire Stella Oduah or Madueke the Oil Minister when his own first lady is guilty of worse corruption, which is common knowledge in Nigeria.
Governor Oshiomhole is trying to teach his other colleagues in Government how to be a good and responsive leader and I support him one hundred percent. Nigeria of yester years was far superior to the Nigeria of today. Our leaders in Government and the Civil Service are worse off today than our past leaders. I can tell you that because I have seen it as an insider in my 25 years service to the Federal Civil Service before checking out of Nigeria. The little story I am about to tell as I end this piece, would convince you.
I served in the Federal Ministry of Education as Secretary to the Ministry’s Tenders Board from November 1969 to February 1974 before my posting to the Federal Ministry of Finance while Obafemi Awolowo was Federal Commissioner for Finance and Deputy Chairman to Yakubu Gowon in the Federal Executive Council. As Secretary to the Tenders Board, I wielded a lot of power and could easily have made millions from Federal contractors looking for accomplices to bribe their way to getting lucrative contracts. I was then serving under one of the 4 most powerful Permanent Secretaries in the Federal Civil Service at the time. The 4 were Allison Ayida, Philip Asiodu, Eme Ebong and Ahmed Joda.
The Tenders Board at Education was under the purview of responsibility of Ahmed Joda. Next to me in the chain of command, was the chairman of the Board, one Mr. Soyode, a heavy-set man who was Deputy Permanent Secretary to Ahmed Joda. Part of my duties as Secretary was to do the shortlist of contractors whose quotations the board had to consider for the award of any contract.
I did my home work thoroughly and I refused to shortlist any of the contractors who had come to offer me bribe. I refused to take not because I did not like money but because I thought it was a wrong thing to do. Unknown to me the particular contractor has offered my chairman his own bribe and he took it. When we got to the meeting, my chairman has assumed the particular contractor had to be on the list to be considered. He got terribly upset with me because the contractor’s name was not on the list. I tried to explain to him as best I could, my reasons for black-listing the contractor but the man didn’t want to hear a word from me. He summarily called for adjournment. And the next thing I saw was a query from him accusing me of dereliction of duty and recommending to Ahmed Joda to fire me.
Whao! My antennas went up. I was furious and livid knowing what must have happened behind my back. Ahmed Joda called me to his office asking me to defend myself and I knew he was not playing. I asked him to give me 24 hours and I went to town showing why I have blacklisted the particular contractor whose quotation was the highest because he knew he had the chairman in his pocket. I presented the photo copies of the money the contractor had offered me and I named the guy that brought the envelope. I told the guy he had to sign for me that he gave me the cash and he did. That was all I needed to prove my innocence. I taped my discussion with the contractor without his knowledge because I had a premonition I might have to defend myself. I provided all the evidence I needed. They were simply overwhelming for Ahmed Joda. I am glad the man is still alive and can testify to what I am saying.
When my response reached his desk, he read my submission, summoned his Deputy Permanent Secretary, showed him my response and he dressed him down in my presence while asking him to write to me a special letter of apology and another letter of commendation on me to be copied to the Cabinet Office where the late Osemawe of Ondo, Oba Fesatus Adedinsewo Adesanoye was then Permanent Secretary. It was my finest moment of my career in the Federal Service. That was how I got my promotion to Senior Assistant Secretary in the Federal Civil Service. That was how I became a close friend of Oba Adesanoye till he died. He was the Chairman when I established and launched in Ondo State in 1994, an Educational Foundation to immortalize the contributions of my late father, retired veteran of the Second World War, Sergeant Akintide Gbangba of blessed memory.
I would never for the rest of my life forget Ahmed Joda from Girei in Adamawa State. The great man is retired now but he is one of the unsung heroes of the fight against Corruption in Nigeria. Rather than fire me, he had his Deputy Permanent Secretary humiliated and transferred to another Ministry because he told him in my presence he would have done the same thing to me had I been found guilty. That was then in Nigeria. What obtains today under President Jonathan is a different ball game.
I could not help but write this article eulogizing Governor Oshiomhole for setting a great example in the kind of leadership we all wish to see in Nigeria as we say good bye to 2013 and as we all hope that the American prediction of the break-up of Nigeria in 2015 should not materialize, just like is currently happening in South Sudan where Corruption has become the “fons et origo” of the downfall of that country.
Need I say more?
I rest my case. Happy New Year till we see again in 2014. All the Best.
The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of SaharaReporters